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Maintenance Letter

 

DENILIQUIN MACHINERY & WHITE TRACTORS

Deniliquin Machinery has been selling White Tractors since the early 1980s.  The most impressive aspect of these tractors was their incredible reliable drivetrain .  They were certainly the strongest transmission available in the 1980s and set bench marks that new generation tractors find hard to match.  The reason for their reliability is in the components they are made up of.  The quality and hardness of parts is second to none.  The size load ratio of the components is so low that there is virtually no wear in the main back endparts.  We recently dismantled the final drives of a White with over 30,000 hours;  there was no wear on any bearings or gear teeth, we adjusted the wheel bearings and sent it back out into the field.  The 2-135/2-155 is certainly a favourite.  Packed with features, yet reliable and simple to service.  Six speed manual transmission with separate three speed powershift, gives 18 forward gears with 7 gears in the working range (3.9-7.4mph).  Externally mounted, closed centre hydraulics can be adjusted for flow and pressure, up to four remote banks can be fitted, and three pump sizes are available 15,20,30, GPM.

WHITE HEADERS
White Headers sold in Australia fall into two categories:
1.    Conventional Drum Machines
2.    Axial Flow Single Rotor

The biggest conventional model is the 8900/20 – its threshing capacity will vary from 10 to 20 tons/hour depending on setup, modifications and crop conditions.  Several of these headers were modified by Deni Machinery, the modification was to increase the wrap around of the concave and shorten the rake under the beater.  This modification increased capacity by 5 tons/hour.  The 8900 is a very reliable header and the main requirement they have is for normal preventative maintenance to be carried out.  The 9700/9720 axial flow headers are capable of 20 – 40 tons/hour depending on header set up and crop conditions.  The 9700/9720 are capable of handling a very large variety of crops, with just the standard adjustments on the machine.  The threshing rotor is the longest rotor fitted to any header and gives it plenty of time to thresh gently whilst still being a high capacity header.

Dear White Tractor Owner,

Over the past twenty seven years my staff and I have gained an extensive amount of experience in the service and repair of White tractors.  We believe the White tractor is an extremely strong and durable tractor, however even the strongest tractors need some care and attention.

Of the repairs we have carried out on White tractors over the past ten years, 85% could have been avoided with 'preventative maintenance'.  This includes replacing worn parts before they become dangerously worn or just simply checking the entire machine regularly to find small problems before they become big ones.  The other 15% of repair jobs are caused almost entirely by operator abuse or, more correctly, operator ignorance.

In our changing economic environment, more and more owners are expecting longer hours from their machines before changing them over.  The only way to get more hours out of your equipment and still keep the running costs down is to increase the preventative maintenance.  It is with this in mind that I would like you to consider the following points.

Injectors.
The life of the injectors is directly connected to the cleanliness and quality of the fuel going through them.  In other words, how well the filters are maintained.  A tractor engine will run reasonably OK on badly atomizing injectors, however the life of the piston rings and cylinders will be effectively shortened as well as diluting the engine oil.  We recommend servicing the injectors at least every 2500 hours.

Fuel Filters.
We recommend changing the fuel filters every 300 hours.  On tractors with water separators, drain the separator every 300 hours and replace it when you can't see through the glass.  On the 2-85s and 2-105s the life of the injector pump can be greatly extended by replacing the standard short filter elements with the double length elements.  This is achieved by simply using a longer centre bolt.  With twice the filter capacity the fuel flow through the paper elements is cut in half and this means that fine sediment will stay in the filter rather than force its way through it.

Tappets.
Tappet settings are quite often overlooked.  On slow revving engines slightly loose or slightly tight tappets may not affect engine power.  However, eventually it can cause the cam followers to wear excessively which in turn can wear the camshaft lobes.  In extreme cases worn cam lobes can cause excessively high combustion chamber temperatures which may eventually cause burnt piston crowns.  Worn cam lobes can cause excessive pounding and this, combined with high combustion chamber temperatures can cause valve heads to drop off.  We therefore recommend that the tappets be checked and reset every 2000 hours.

Air Filters.
Dual element dry paper air filters are the most efficient design of air filter available on tractors today.  The inside element is a safety filter to trap dirt if the outside filter should fail.  The inside element should be replaced when the outside element is replaced as moisture can cause it to block.
The owner's manual recommends cleaning the element when the red light on the dash comes on.  The reason for this is to reduce the chances of the element being damaged from over servicing.  It is not necessary to wait until the red light comes on, however we do suggest checking no more often than 500 hours.  The exception to this is for tractors doing laser land forming.

Correct Tyre Sizing.
On any front wheel assist tractor the front wheel need to pull a bit harder than the rear wheels.  The bigger the front wheels and the more weight on the front of the tractor, the less 'lead' is needed on the front wheels.  The way to check this is by carrying out a lead test which should be done any time new tyres are fitted or, for example, if the weight is changed by fitting a front blade or front end loader.

Excessive lead on the front wheels can cause excessive wear and possibly failure of any front wheel drive line component.  In loose soils and particularly with an implement that doesn't put much weight on the drawbar, excessive positive or negative lead will cause the tractor to 'power hop' or bounce up and down.

Steering Stops - 2WD.
It is important to maintain the steering stops at the bottom of the kingpins.  If these stops become broken or worn, the power steering ram can become damaged from over-steering.  If a lot of contour bank work is being done it will increase the life of the steering components if the steering stops are built up to reduce the amount of angle that the front wheels can turn.

Steering Stops - Front Wheel Assist.
On front wheel assist tractors it is possible to permanently damage the constant velocity joint from over-steering if the steering stops become broken or excessively worn.  On 2-135, 2-155 and 2-180 tractors the maximum safe angle is 33.5 on the inside wheel.  A quick test to find out if your tractor is turning too sharply is to listen to the front hub whilst turning to full lock.  You should hear one 'clunk' as the CV joint takes up the end float.  If you hear a continuous 'clunk, clunk, clunk' as you turn then either the steering is turning too sharply or the CV (constant velocity joint) is getting low on grease.  If the ‘steering stops’ need building up, it is important that the stop on the front of the axle stops the wheel from turning at the same time as the rear stop on the other side hits.  This will ensure that the load is distributed evenly between the stops as well as taking the strain off the tie rod ends.

Engine Mounts.
In irrigation work, where tractors are driving on and off contour banks, engine mounts need to be checked regularly as the twisting action puts a considerable strain on them.  On 2-135, 2-155 and 2-180 tractors the bolts may loosen and on early 2-105s the mount may crack.  This can be gusseted and strengthened quite easily as on the later 2-105s.

Drop Box - 2-105.
The standard 2-105 FWA drop box has its own separate oil supply.  There is a modification available to make this oil common with the gearbox and differential, thus eliminating the problem of constantly having to check the drop box for oil.  Any time a great deal of contour bank work is done, it is a good idea to check the drop box mounting bolts for tightness.  These bolts are positioned either side of the speedo-cable outlet, and can be tightened from underneath the tractor.

Hydraulics - 2-135, 2-155 & 2-180.
The hydraulics on all White tractors are of the 'closed centre' variety which means that they have constant pressure and variable flow with adjustable flow restrictors on the remote controls and three point linkage.  The most common complaint I have heard is of 'shuddering' when lowering heavy implements.  This can be completely eliminated by raising engine revs and adjusting the restrictor screw on the remote control bank inwards.  For maximum life of all hydraulic components it is important to change the hydraulic filter every 500 hours.

Hydraulics - 2-105, 2-150, 4-150, 4-180 & 4-175.
Everything stated in the paragraph above also applies to these tractors with the exception of the oil supply to the pump.  On this system the oil is gravity fed whereas on the previous tractors it is force fed by another low pressure pump.  For this reason it is important to run the correct oil which must be a thin (low viscosity) hydraulic oil or automatic transmission fluid.  Also the filter must be changed regularly every 500 hours.  If the wrong oil is used or the filter left restricted it can cause cavitations and possibly damage the pump.

FWA Front Hub Oil.
It is important to change this oil every 500 hours as this hub is essentially a rotating gearbox and wearing metal cannot settle to the bottom.  I recommend either 80/90 gear oil with a Nulon additive of Shell MJX90 oil which has an equivalent rating.

CV Joints - 2-135, 2-155 & 2-180.
These CV joints are a very strong item and with proper maintenance will not wear out.  We have found that when they are used in harsh conditions constantly, for example in deep mud or water, it is possible for the grease to dry out or be washed out.  The only symptom of this happening is that the CV joint will be excessively 'clicky' when turning on full lock.  To be certain of this, you must also be sure that the steering angle is not excessive. (Refer section of steering stops.)  We have experienced this condition between 3000 and 6000 hours.  The correct maintenance is to dismantle the CV joint, clean and inspect and repack with grease.

CV Joints - 2-105.
These CV joints are similar to the 2-135 CV joints in that they are lubricated by grease.  However, they are a two piece CV joint and as such they have an 'end float' tolerance which cannot be allowed to become excessive.  If the end float does become excessive the balls could jump out and permanently damage the CV joint.  If your 2-105 has not had its end float checked we recommend that you check it as soon as possible.  This can be done quite easily by the owner whilst changing the hub oil.  Correcting excessive end float is a relatively simple job compared to the cost of a new CV joint.

King Pin Bushes - 2-135, 2-155 & 2-180 FWA Tractors.
The king pin bushes are made of a fibrous material and the lower bushes tend to wear first.  The rate of wear varies and we have replaced these bushes anywhere between 3500 and 6000 hours.  It is important to replace these bushes before they wear through and they can be checked simply by jacking the wheel up and pulling outwards at the bottom to check for movement.

Steering Stops Update.
In the past we have experienced excessive wear on the standard steering stops and so we have available heavy duty adjustable steering stops.  These heavy duty stops bolt on to the axle mounting bolts with no welding required.  Before ordering you must check to see whether there is 1/2" of thread to spare on the axle mount bolts, if there isn't then we have longer bolts available.  We can also supply a template to enable you to check your steering angle.

Cabin Filters.
For extremely dusty conditions, we have designed and manufactured a Donaldson 'engine quality' air filter which will fit all models of White tractor.  This element filters the air before it reaches the standard cabin filter and we have experienced fewer air conditioning problems after this extra filter has been fitted.

Air Conditioning.
The air conditioning in White tractors when correctly adjusted and properly maintained is quite good.  Apart from attention to air filtration, no modification is necessary.  It is important to keep the condensor in front of the radiator clean and to clean the evaporator in the cabin roof once a year.  The best way to run the air conditioning controls for  maximum compressor life; keep the fan speed reasonably high and turn the ‘ thermostat knob’ only as much as is needed to cool the cabin.

Power-Shift.
The three speed power shift on White tractors is the best in the agricultural machinery business.  Unfortunately we have noted on some tractors that there is no warning for low pressure on the clutch packs.  We have had occasions when the pressure control valve has been 'stuck' with foreign matter and when this happens it is possible to damage the clutch plates if there is no warning.  The cheapest way of correcting this situation is to fit a Murphy Switch gauge with a warning light available from us.

Cooling Systems.
For maximum radiator life, the cooling system should be drained and refilled every 12 months and a good quality corrosion inhibitor should be added to the water.  At the same time, preferably at the start of summer, the front grille and surround should be removed completely.  The oil cooler and air conditioning condensor can then be laid down to allow the radiator to be cleaned properly.

A further point of interest is the heater hoses... If the heater is still connected then the hoses must be kept in good condition.  If a heater hose should rupture and lose the water quickly, the temperature gauge will not warn the driver.  This is a very important point; the temperature gauge will not work when there is no water surrounding the sender unit.  The gauge will sit still or slowly go down and the first warning you will get is when the engine starts to tighten up.  To avoid this situation, keep all hoses in good condition or, alternatively, fit a good quality water level indicator.

Ideal Engine Loading.
There are two primary considerations in loading a diesel engine.  Obtaining maximum life from the engine and obtaining maximum fuel efficiency.  The important point here is that fuel efficiency is worked out by comparing fuel used with work done.  For example; a tractor may use a large amount of fuel in an hour, but until you calculate the gallons of fuel used per acre of ground ploughed, you do not have a real measure of fuel efficiency.

After extensive feed back from tractors working in the field, we have found that both long life and ideal fuel efficiency are obtained somewhere between 3/4 and 7/8 engine revs and between 3/4 and 7/8 maximum load.  As a rule of thumb, you should run the throttle back from the maximum stop a bit, but still be able to push the throttle wide open and achieve maximum revs.  If the engine cannot reach maximum revs when the throttle is opened then the engine is over loaded.

Cold Start Device - 2-135 & 2-155.
The above models of White tractor have a heating element fitted to the centre of the intake manifold which has a porcelain insulator in the middle of it.  If the cold start device is used excessively, the porcelain insulator can break and go into the engine, possibly scoring cylinders.  To prevent this happening we recommend replacing the cold start device every 3000 hours.  If you do not use the cold start device then we recommend that the porcelain insulator be removed.  This is a very important service procedure.

3208 Engines.
We recommend that crankshaft bearings be checked at approximately 6000 hours.  This can be done by dropping the sump.  If necessary, new bearings can be rolled in from the underside, without removing the engine.

Fuel Consumption - 2-135 & 2-155.
We have occasionally had reports of these tractors appearing to use excessive fuel.  All of these reports quote a figure in gallons per hour.  We recommend that you check your fuel consumption in gallons per acre then compare with a neighbours gallon per acre in similar conditions.  The injector pumps on these engines are sensitive to revs rather than load so if you wish to reduce fuel consumption then reduce your revs.  We have several reports where these tractors are producing better gallon per acre figures than similar sized air cooled diesels.  The emphasis here is on the ability of the White tractor to put its power to the ground.

Hot-Air Recirculation – Engine Overheating
The most common cause of over heating is when heated air from behind the radiator immediately recirculates to the front of the radiator, this occurs when the sealing foam falls out due to dust ingress and old age.  The sealing foam must be replaced on all four sides of the radiator; this will also prevent grass and straw from being sucked into the radiator. All the cooling air must come through the front grill to ensure the cleanest coolest air for the radiator to work at it optimum temperature.

Rear wheel Bearings 2-135, 2-155, 2-180, 4-210, 4-225, 4-270
Rear wheel bearings should be checked for movement every 15,000 hours and we recommend adjusting them every 30,000 hours. This is a relatively simple procedure, call us for details.

These suggestions and points will be useful for you the owner in maintaining a trouble free long life White tractor. Call us today for any enquires regarding parts and servicing of your tractor.


Regards, Andrew Howley
Managing Proprietor

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For more information call Andrew on (03) 5881 3139